Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a behavior problem that is characterized by hyperactivity, inattention, restlessness, and impulsivity and, until recently, was diagnosed primarily in children. It was first defined as Hyperkinetic Disorder of Childhood in 1957 and was popularly known as hyperactivity or syndrome that is hyperactive it absolutely was renamed ADHD in 1987. The renaming also represented a shift in focus from hyperactive behavior to the inattention as a major characteristic associated with disorder.
The centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimates 7 percent of school-age (6-10) children have ADHD, with a ratio of 3 to 1 boys to girls in the United States. White children tend to have higher rates of ADHD diagnosis than minority children. The definition of ADHD has broadened in recent years. Now, in addition to school-age children, ADHD is diagnosed in preschool children, adolescents, and adults, which plays a role in the prevalence that is rising.
The most frequent treatment that is medical ADHD has been psychoactive medications, especially ethyl-phenidate (Ritalin) and other stimulant medications (Cylert, Adderall, and Concerta). Treatment rates have increased enormously in recent years; in 2004 the Department of health insurance and Human Services estimated 5 million children ages 5 to 17 were treated for ADHD in 2000-02, up from 2.6 million in 1994. The treatment and diagnosis of ADHD is a lot higher in america compared to other countries, but evidence suggests that considering that the 1990s it is often rising far away as well, as an example, in the United Kingdom.
The causes of ADHD are not well understood, although various theories have been offered, including dietary, genetic, psychological buy essays online, and social ones. In past times 2 decades, medical scientists have reported genetic susceptibilities to ADHD and found differences in brain imaging results from those with ADHD and folks without ADHD. The causes of ADHD are still largely unknown although bio-medical theories of ADHD predominate. Some contend that even when you will find biological differences when considering children with ADHD as well as other children, what is observed could be a reflection of variations in temperament rather than a specific disorder.
ADHD and its particular treatment have already been controversial at the very least since the 1970s.
Critics have expressed nervous about the drugging of schoolchildren, contending that ADHD is simply a label for childhood behavior that is deviant. Others grant that some children may have a neurological disorder, but maintain that there has been an overdiagnosis of ADHD. Every once in awhile some educators and parents have raised concerns about negative effects from long-term use of stimulant medications. Child psychiatrists see ADHD as the utmost childhood that is common disorder and consider psychoactive medication treatment as well established and safe. Parent and consumer groups, such as CHADD (Children and Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder), have a tendency to support the medical perspective of ADHD.
Because the 1990s there is a rise that is significant the diagnosis and remedy for adult ADHD. Whereas childhood ADHD is usually parent or school identified, adult ADHD seems to be largely self-identified. Some researchers have noted that lots of adults that are apparently successful an ADHD diagnosis and medication treatment as a consequence of learning about the disorder from professionals, the media, or others, and then seeing their particular life problems reflected within the description of ADHD (e.g., disorganized life, inability to sustain attention, moving from job to job). Adult ADHD remains controversial, however. Many psychiatrists have embraced adult ADHD as an important social problem, with claims of tens of huge amounts of dollars in lost productivity and household income due to the disorder, whereas critics have suggested it is “the medicalization of underperformance.”
Sociologists view ADHD as a classic case of this medicalization of deviant behavior, defining a previously nonmedical problem as a medical one additionally the remedy for ADHD as a type of medical control that is social.
Whereas some have remarked that when a challenge becomes medicalized it really is less stigmatized, because its origin sometimes appears as physiological or biomedical in the place of as linked to behavior that is volitional others point out the social consequences of medicalizing children’s behavior problems. Some have suggested that medicalizing deviant behavior as ADHD individualizes complex social problems and allows for powerful types of medical social control (medications) to be used. Secondary gain, accruing social benefits from a medical diagnosis, is also a concern with ADHD. There are reports of adolescents seeking an ADHD diagnosis to gain disability that is learning in order to have certain benefits, such as for instance untimed tests or alternative assignments. From a sociological view, the definition of ADHD is a prime example of diagnostic expansion, the widening definition of an accepted diagnosis. For some, ADHD is currently deemed a lifelong disorder, with an expanding age groups for diagnosis (from preschool to adult) and a lower life expectancy threshold for psychoactive medication treatment. It is more likely that an increasing number of individuals are being identified, labeled, and treated as having ADHD although it is possible that the behaviors characteristic of ADHD are increasing because of some kind of social cause.